Welcome to The Visible Embryo
The Visible Embryo Home
Home--- -History-----Bibliography-----Pregnancy Timeline-----Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy---- Pregnancy Calculator----Female Reproductive System----News----Contact
WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform

The World Health Organization (WHO) has a Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain information on clinical trials. Now you can search all such registers to identify clinical trial research around the world!




Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System


Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.

Content protected under a Creative Commons License.
No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.


Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersDevelopmental TimelineFertilizationFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFemale Reproductive SystemBeginning Cerebral HemispheresA Four Chambered HeartFirst Detectable Brain WavesThe Appearance of SomitesBasic Brain Structure in PlaceHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearFetal sexual organs visibleBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsInner Ear Bones HardenSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateFetal liver is producing blood cellsBrain convolutions beginBrain convolutions beginImmune system beginningWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisWhite fat begins to be madePeriod of rapid brain growthFull TermHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningLungs begin to produce surfactant
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development

What you eat can influence how you sleep

A new study suggests that your daily intake of fiber, saturated fat and sugar may impact your quality of sleep.

A new study has found eating less fiber, and more saturated fat and more sugar is associated with more easily disrupted sleep.

Results from the research show a greater fiber intake predicted more time spent in deep, slow wave sleep. In contrast, a higher percentage of energy from saturated fat predicted less slow wave sleep. Greater sugar intake also is associated with more arousal from sleep.

"Our main finding was that diet quality influenced sleep quality. 

"It was most surprising that a single day of greater fat intake and lower fiber intake could influence sleep parameters."

Marie-Pierre St-Onge, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, and Principal Investigator.

Study results are published in the January issue of the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Marie-Pierre St-Onge.

"This study emphasizes the fact that diet and sleep are interwoven in the fabric of a healthy lifestyle," said American Academy of Sleep Medicine President Dr. Nathaniel Watson, who was not involved in the study. "For optimal health it is important to make lifestyle choices that promote healthy sleep, such as eating a nutritious diet and exercising regularly."

The study also found that participants fell asleep faster after eating fixed meals provided by a nutritionist — which were lower in saturated fat and higher in protein than self-selected meals.

It took participants an average of 29 minutes to fall asleep after consuming foods and beverages of their choice, but only 17 minutes to fall asleep after eating controlled meals.

"The finding that diet can influence sleep has tremendous health implications, given the increasing recognition of the role of sleep in the development of chronic disorders such as hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease," said St-Onge.

The randomized study involved 26 adults - 13 men and 13 women - who had a normal weight, and an average age of 35 years.

During 5 nights in a sleep lab, participants spent 9 hours in bed from 10 p.m. to 7 a.m., sleeping for 7 hours and 35 minutes on average per night. Objective sleep data was gathered nightly by polysomnograhy, and analyzed from night 3, after 3 days of controlled feeding, and night 5, after one day of ad lib or self organized food intake.

According to the authors, the study suggests that diet-based recommendations might be used to improve sleep in those with poor sleep quality. However, future studies are needed to evaluate if this relationship proves true.

There is a consistent epidemiological association between short sleep duration and obesity. It is increasingly clear from intervention studies that restricting sleep increases food intake. However, the control mechanisms of food intake that are disturbed by sleep duration remain somewhat unknown. There are some data supporting a homeostatic mechanism implicating alterations in ghrelin and leptin concentrations, but there are also data supporting changes in hedonistic controls of food intake. This chapter focuses on the latter and examines the state of science relating sleep duration to changes in food appeal and food choice. Food stimuli seem to elicit greater neuronal reactivity in reward and pleasure centers of the brain under conditions of sleep restriction, which could lead to poor food choices, overeating, and weight gain over time. The effects of sleep duration on food intake are clearly complex, and more research is necessary to disentangle the roles of the environment and biology.

The study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including a grant from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS).

To request a copy of the study, "Fiber and Saturated Fat Are Associated with Sleep Arousals and Slow Wave Sleep," or to arrange an interview with the study author or an AASM spokesperson, please contact Communications Coordinator Lynn Celmer at 630-737-9700, ext. 9364, or lcelmer@aasmnet.org.

The monthly, peer-reviewed Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine is the official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, a professional membership society that improves sleep health and promotes high quality patient centered care through advocacy, education, strategic research, and practice standards (http://www.aasmnet.org). The AASM encourages patients to talk to their doctor about sleep problems and visit http://www.sleepeducation.org for more information about sleep and a searchable directory of AASM accredited sleep centers.

Return to top of page

Jan 26, 2016   Fetal Timeline   Maternal Timeline   News   News Archive   

Eating less fiber and more saturated fat and sugar almost guarantees
a restless night. Our body processes sugar and fats quickly and they stimulate
energy release. But proteins and fiber take longer to break down and
produce energy, therefore producing more restful sleep.
Image Credit: Public Domain




Phospholid by Wikipedia