Welcome to The Visible Embryo
  o
 
The Visible Embryo Home
   
Google  
Home--- -History-----Bibliography-----Pregnancy Timeline-----Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy---- Pregnancy Calculator----Female Reproductive System----News----Contact
 
WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform


The World Health Organization (WHO) has a Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain information on clinical trials. Now you can search all such registers to identify clinical trial research around the world!





Home

History

Bibliography

Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

News

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.


Content protected under a Creative Commons License.
No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

 

Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersDevelopmental TimelineFertilizationFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFemale Reproductive SystemBeginning Cerebral HemispheresA Four Chambered HeartFirst Detectable Brain WavesThe Appearance of SomitesBasic Brain Structure in PlaceHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearFetal sexual organs visibleBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsInner Ear Bones HardenSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateFetal liver is producing blood cellsBrain convolutions beginBrain convolutions beginImmune system beginningWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisWhite fat begins to be madePeriod of rapid brain growthFull TermHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningLungs begin to produce surfactant
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development




 

Babies really are cute!

What is it about the sight of an infant that makes almost everyone smile? Big eyes, dewy skin, chubby cheeks, that little nose? An infectious laugh and a captivating smell? While we all agree babies look cute, Oxford University research has found cuteness is designed to appeal to every sense.


Their research explains that all the characteristics we think of as 'cuteness' trigger our caregiving behaviours — vital to infants who need our constant attention to survive and thrive. The study is published in the journal Trends in Cognitive Sciences.

Morten Kringelbach PhD, from the Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, in the United Kingdom (UK); and affiliated with the Center for Music in the Brain (MIB), in Aarhus University, Denmark, led the work. Together with Eloise Stark, Catherine Alexander, Professor Marc Bornstein and Professor Alan Stein, of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Oxford.


"Infants attract us through all our senses, which helps make cuteness one of the most basic and powerful forces shaping our behaviour."

Morten Kringelbach PhD, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, UK; the Center for Music in the Brain (MIB), Aarhus University, Denmark.


Reviewing the emerging literature on how cute infants and animals affect the brain, the Oxford University team found that cuteness supports key parental responses by igniting fast privileged neural activity followed by slower processing in those large brain networks which are involved in play, empathy, and perhaps even higher-order moral emotions.

Apparantly, the data also shows that definitions of cuteness should not be limited just to visual features but include positive infant sounds and smells.


From an evolutionary standpoint, cuteness is a very potent protective mechanism that ensures survival for otherwise completely dependent infants.


Professor Kringelbach: "This is the first evidence of its kind to show that cuteness helps infants to survive by eliciting caregiving, which cannot be reduced to simple, instinctual behaviours. Instead, caregiving involves a complex choreography of slow, careful, deliberate, and long-lasting prosocial behaviours, which ignite fundamental brain pleasure systems that are also engaged when eating food or listening to music, and always involve pleasant experiences."

Cuteness affects both men and women, even those without children.

"This might be a fundamental response present in everyone, regardless of parental status or gender, and we are currently conducting the first long-term study of what happens to brain responses when we become parents." he adds.

Abstract
Cuteness in offspring is a potent protective mechanism that ensures survival for otherwise completely dependent infants. Previous research has linked cuteness to early ethological ideas of a ‘Kindchenschema’ (infant schema) where infant facial features serve as ‘innate releasing mechanisms’ for instinctual caregiving behaviours. We propose extending the concept of cuteness beyond visual features to include positive infant sounds and smells. Evidence from behavioural and neuroimaging studies links this extended concept of cuteness to simple ‘instinctual’ behaviours and to caregiving, protection, and complex emotions. We review how cuteness supports key parental capacities by igniting fast privileged neural activity followed by slower processing in large brain networks also involved in play, empathy, and perhaps even higher-order moral emotions.

Trends
• The parent–infant relation is fundamental to infant survival and development.
• Cuteness has emerged as an important factor for attracting caregiver attention and affection.
• Cuteness is not limited to visual infant features, but is also found in positive sounds and smells.
• Neuroimaging has started to identify how survival-related infant-positive and negative stimuli elicit core affective brain activity through fast attentional biasing and slow appraisal processes.
• Beyond caregiving, cuteness has a key role in facilitating social relations, pleasure, and well-being, as well as increasing empathy and compassion.
Return to top of page

Jun 10, 2016   Fetal Timeline   Maternal Timeline   News   News Archive   



"Infants attract us through all our senses, which helps make cuteness
one of the most basic and powerful forces shaping our behaviour."

Morten Kringelbach PhD.
Image Credit: Public Domain


 


 

Phospholid by Wikipedia