Welcome to The Visible Embryo
  o
 
The Visible Embryo Home
   
Google  
Home--- -History-----Bibliography-----Pregnancy Timeline-----Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy---- Pregnancy Calculator----Female Reproductive System----News----Contact
   
WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform

The World Health Organization (WHO) has a Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain information on clinical trials.

Now you can search all such registers to identify clinical trial research around the world!






Home

History

Bibliography

Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

News

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.


Content protected under a Creative Commons License.
No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

 

Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersDevelopmental TimelineFertilizationFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFemale Reproductive SystemBeginning Cerebral HemispheresA Four Chambered HeartFirst Detectable Brain WavesThe Appearance of SomitesBasic Brain Structure in PlaceHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearFetal sexual organs visibleBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsInner Ear Bones HardenSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateFetal liver is producing blood cellsBrain convolutions beginBrain convolutions beginImmune system beginningWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisWhite fat begins to be madePeriod of rapid brain growthFull TermHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningLungs begin to produce surfactant
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development




 

Left hand does know what the right hand is doing

The saying goes that "your left hand doesn't know what your right hand is doing," but actually, your left hand is paying more attention than you'd think.


Researchers at Tel-Aviv University found that when people practiced finger movements with their right hand while watching their left hand on 3D virtual reality headsets, they could use their left hand more efficiently. The work, appearing December 13 in Cell Reports, provides a new strategy to improve physical therapy for people with limited strength in their hands.


"We are tricking the brain. This entire experiment ended up being a nice demonstration about how to combine software engineering and neuroscience."

Roy Mukamel PhD, Professor of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Israel, and lead author.


After completing baseline tests to assess the initial motor skills of each hand, 53 participants strapped on virtual reality headsets, which showed simulated versions of their hands. During the first experiment, participants completed a series of finger movements with their right hand while the screen showed their virtual left hand moving instead.

Next, the participants put a motorized glove on their left hand, which moved their fingers to match the motions of the right hand. While this occurred, the headsets again showed their virtual left hand moving instead of their right.

After analyzing the results, the researchers discovered that the left hand's performance significantly improved (i.e., had more precise movements in a faster amount of time) when the screen showed the left hand. But the most notable improvements occurred when the virtual reality screen showed the left hand moving while the motorized glove moved the right hand in reality.


Researchers used fMRI to track which part of the brain was activated during experiments in 18 people — seeing in each, their superior parietal lobe being activated during training. The level of activity in their parietal lobe also correlated to improved left hand performance. More brain activity was reflected in better left hand performance.


"Technologically these experiments were a big challenge," says Mukamel. "We manipulated what people saw and combined it with the passive movement of the hand to show that our hands can learn when they're not moving under voluntary control.

"We need to show a way to obtain high-performance gains relative to other traditional types of therapies," says Mukamel. "If we can train one hand without voluntarily moving it and still show significant improvements in the motor skills of that hand, then that's the ideal."

Abstract Highlights
•Unimanual training also enhances performance in the untrained hand (cross-education)
•Real-time manipulation of visual feedback enhances magnitude of cross-education
•Yoking movement of untrained to trained hand further increases cross-education
•Functional connectivity with SPL during training predicts cross-education

Summary
Physical practice with one hand results in performance gains of the other (un-practiced) hand, yet the role of sensory feedback and underlying neurophysiology is unclear. Healthy subjects learned sequences of finger movements by physical training with their right hand while receiving real-time movement-based visual feedback via 3D virtual reality devices as if their immobile left hand was training. This manipulation resulted in significantly enhanced performance gain with the immobile hand, which was further increased when left-hand fingers were yoked to passively follow right-hand voluntary movements. Neuroimaging data show that, during training with manipulated visual feedback, activity in the left and right superior parietal lobule and their degree of coupling with motor and visual cortex, respectively, correlate with subsequent left-hand performance gain. These results point to a neural network subserving short-term motor skill learning and may have implications for developing new approaches for learning and rehabilitation in patients with unilateral motor deficits.

Keywords:
fMRI, intermanual transfer, cross-education, motor learning

Received: January 27, 2016; Received in revised form: July 7, 2016; Accepted: October 28, 2016; Published: December 13, 2016

Cell Reports Ossmy and Mukamel: "Neural network underlying intermanual skill transfer in humans" http://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(16)31532-7

This work was supported through the Sagol School of Neuroscience and School of Psychological Sciences at Tel-Aviv University in Israel.

Cell Reports (@CellReports), published by Cell Press, is a weekly open-access journal that publishes high-quality papers across the entire life sciences spectrum. The journal features reports, articles, and resources that provide new biological insights, are thought-provoking, and/or are examples of cutting-edge research. Visit: http://www.cell.com/cell-reports. To receive Cell Press media alerts, contact press@cell.com.
Return to top of page

Dec 16, 2016   Fetal Timeline   Maternal Timeline   News   News Archive   




Image Credit: Ossmy and Mukamel/Cell Reports 2017

 


 


Phospholid by Wikipedia