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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than one million visitors each month.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform


The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!





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Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.


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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersDevelopmental TimelineFertilizationFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFemale Reproductive SystemBeginning Cerebral HemispheresA Four Chambered HeartFirst Detectable Brain WavesThe Appearance of SomitesBasic Brain Structure in PlaceHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearFetal sexual organs visibleBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsInner Ear Bones HardenSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateFetal liver is producing blood cellsBrain convolutions beginBrain convolutions beginImmune system beginningWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisWhite fat begins to be madePeriod of rapid brain growthFull TermHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningLungs begin to produce surfactant
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development




 

Aug 28, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How zebrafish rebuild their amputated fins
Fish have the fascinating ability to fully regenerate amputated organs. Unlike us poor humans. Therefore, Zebrafish are a favorite model for studying the processes behind organ regeneration and potential human application.

Aug 27, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Batting practice in the genome
In the biochemical game of genetics, proteins were seen as either 'spectators' or 'players' in gene regulation. But that idea is changing. Researchers now find spectator proteins are actually at batting practice, gearing up for the big game.

Aug 26, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Algorithm identifies gene movement around the clock
An algorithm gives scientists a new way to identify dynamic patterns in oscillating genes, helping define when genes begin to function during fetal growth.

Aug 25, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

About that Paleo diet, eat some carbs!
Understanding how and why we evolved our large brains is one of the most puzzling issues in human evolution. Widely accepted is that brain size increased with changes in diet including meat and the introduction of cooking.

Aug 24, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Infertility of middle-aged mice can be reversed
We all know our fertility cycle becomes more irregular during menopause. Now it appears our aging circadian clock may someday be reversible.

Aug 21, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Pre-pregnancy factors affect two generations
A woman’s weight at birth, education level and marital status pre-pregnancy can have repercussions for two generations, putting her children and grandchildren at higher risk of low birth weight.

Aug 20, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Engineering a solution to genetic diseases
New study advances scientists' ability to permanently 'edit' faulty genes

Aug 19, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Ultrasound has potential to detect preterm labor
A proof-of-concept study using ultrasound to detect changes in cervical stiffness, can indicate if there is risk for preterm labor. It may ultimately give doctors a new tool for preventing preterm birth.

Aug 18, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

One protein keeps cells both static and moving!
New research reveals the protein E-Cadherin not only makes a cell "sticky," but is also critical for its mobility.

Aug 17, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

What controls our waking up and going to sleep?
A simple 2-cycle mechanism turns our key brain neurons 'off' and 'on' during a 24-hour day.

Aug 14, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How can labor contractions keep growing stronger?
Scientists, for the first time, have identified a mechanism in muscle cells of the uterus that explain how contractions in childbirth grow stronger.

Aug 13, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Resurrecting ancient viruses to improve gene therapy
Researchers at Massachusetts Schepens Eye Research Institute have reconstructed an ancient virus to deliver gene therapy to the liver, muscle, or retina. A technique potentially more potent than currently available therapies.

Aug 12, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Skin stem cells coaxed to become Schwann cells
Scientists use a combination of small molecules to turn cells isolated from human skin into Schwann cells - the specialized cells which support nerves and play a role in nerve repair.

Aug 11, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How a single genetic mutation can cause autism
New research shows the precise cell mechanisms that leads to autism disorder, and an existing drug which might help thousands of people with autism.

Aug 10, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Surprising light on genetic causes for cerebral palsy
Cerebral palsy has historically been considered to be caused by birth asphyxia, stroke or perhaps infections in the developing brain of babies. Now, a new Canadian study has uncovered strong evidence for genetic causes of cerebral palsy.

Aug 7, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Drinking at conception boosts diabetes risk for baby
Babies conceived by women who drink alcohol around the time of conception face dramatically increased risks of type 2 diabetes and obesity in early middle age, a University of Queensland, Australia study has found.

Aug 6, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Altered brain growth in autism spectrum disorder
More than half a century after autism was identified by psychiatrist Leo Kanner in 1943, the exact causes of this brain disorder still remain unclear. Now Scripps research has uncovered how mutations in the gene PTEN, mutated in 20% of autism cases, alters early brain development in mice and contributes to macrocephaly or enlarged head.

Aug 5, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Stem cells one step closer to curing genetic disease
Healthy brain, muscle, eye and heart cells would improve the lives of tens of thousands of people around the world with mitochondrial diseases. Now, researchers at the Salk Institute have gotten one step closer to making such cures a reality: they've turned patient's cells into healthy stem cells, mutation-free, that can then become any cell type.

Aug 4, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Simple flip of a genetic switch begins aging
Scientists have pinpointed the start of aging and discovered it is not a slow series of random events. Two Northwestern University scientists have identified a molecular switch in the transparent roundworm C. elegans, that abruptly begins cell aging just as the animal reaches reproductive maturity.

Aug 3, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Stressed birds stop looking to parents, turn to flock
Zebra finches are highly-social and learn foraging skills from their parents. However, if exposed to stress after hatching, young birds will ignore their parents and look to unrelated adult birds for help and learning instead.

Jul 31, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

'Miniature brains' from skin cells explain autism
A larger head size — or macrocephaly — is seen in some children with severe Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In a new stem cell study from the Yale School of Medicine, researchers found cerebral cortex cells divided at a faster pace, along with over production of the FOXG1 gene in ASD patients' with large head size. These observations may lead to new drug targets for autism treatment.

Jul 30, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Birth order not meaningful to personality or IQ
A study of 377,000 high school students offers some good news: Yes, first-borns do have higher IQs and consistently different personality traits than those born later in the family. However, the differences are so small they have no practical relevance.

Jul 29, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Genetic roots of scoliosis
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) — or curvature of the spine — affects tens of millions of children worldwide. Now, scientists have discovered a gene with links to the condition.

Jul 28, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Reverse hearing loss?

Unlike birds and amphibians, mammals can't recover lost hearing. In people, the cells of the inner ear responsible for detecting sound and transmitting those signals to the brain, form during the early weeks of development. And unlike other animals, can't be replaced if lost to illness, injury or aging.

Jul 27, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Mind the gap!
In biology, stability is very important. From body temperature to blood pressure and sugar levels, our body ensures that all of our systems remain within reasonable limits, without damaging extremes.

Jul 24, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Bad genes don't always lead to same outcomes
New research has uncovered how DNA influences the potential severity of any genetic disease. Two people with the same disease-causing gene mutation do not always become ill to the same extent — an end result that has puzzled scientists for decades.

Jul 23, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How is temperature affecting mammal moms?
Temperature change affects reproduction in mammals as well as how they care for their young. With cooler temperatures, hamster moms increase their nursing output, but at warmer temperatures they decrease milk production. With climate change, researchers are hurrying to record how temperature flucturation impacts mammal moms and their babies.

Jul 22, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Sialic acid is key to unlocking brain disorders
Research in mice may help us understand how small changes in the way sialic acid attaches to the surface of a neuron can affect motor skills and learning, or cause hyperactivity.

Jul 21, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Metformin does not reduce baby birthweights
Treating obese pregnant women with a diabetes drug does not stop their babies from being born overweight. Doctors had hoped such treatment would help reduce obesity rates and lower the number of difficult births.

Jul 20, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Binge-eating cavefish share gene mutation with us
Blind cavefish have adapted to annual cycles of starvation and binge-eating perhaps due to mutations in their MC4R gene. This is the same gene that is mutated in certain obese people with insatiable appetites, according to a new study led by Harvard Medical School geneticists.

Jul 17, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Hippo dances to hormones
Although fruit flies don't develop cancer, stem cell researchers have been learning a great deal from them. In particular, from mutant flies with overgrown organs that resemble hippopotamuses.

Jul 16, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How good is your eyesight?
The human eye can accurately distinguish between the most subtle differences in color. Where human vision falls short is in perceiving minuscule detail. Researchers in Finland have now captured that ability in us - using color.

Jul 15, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

CEP63 Gene key to brain development and fertility
Researchers studying the gene CEP63, found mutated in a rare brain disorder called Seckel syndrome, now know why it causes microcephaly, growth defects and in some cases — male infertility.

Jul 14, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Geometry of brain’s surface matches gene heritage
Patterns in sulci and gyri don’t predict intelligence, but may help diagnose disease — as well as reflect an individual's genetic background.

Jul 13, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

'Avandia' to be clinically tested for preeclampsia
Rosiglitazone, a drug sold as Avandia for diabetic use, has been found to stimulate the placenta and halt severe preeclampsia — high blood pressure — during pregnancy.

Jul 10, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Determining the front and back of a cell
A new protein is identified that helps cells determine their polarity and direction. The direction a cell moves in impacts wound healing, cancer metastasis and many other cell outcomes.

Jul 9, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Long-term memory maintained by prion-like proteins
Research has uncovered evidence of a system in the brain that persistently maintains memories for long periods of time. Paradoxically, it works with the same mechanisms that cause mad cow, kuru, and other brain disorders.

Jul 8, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Autism affects neural pathways and brain shape
Scientists have found that mutations that cause autism in children are connected to a neural pathway regulating brain shape during fetal development.

Jul 7, 2015
-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Fine tuning the brain
When newborn babies open their eyes for the first time, they already possess nerve cells specialized in particular stimuli in the visual cortex of their brains - but how are these nerve cells systematically linked with each other?

Jul 6, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

REM sleep critical to young brain development
Medication was found to interfere with REM sleep which locks in skills and experiences. Analysis showed that normal vision did not develop in animals experiencing a REM sleep deficit.

Jul 3, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Brain size/intelligence controlled by a single gene
A gene called Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) drives brain size and intelligence in fish according to a new study out of UCL, Stockholm University and University of Helsinki.

Jul 2, 2015-----
News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Stressed moms alter babys' gut and brain
Stress during the first trimester of pregnancy alters the population of microbes living in a woman's vagina. Those changes are passed on to newborns during birth and are associated with differences in their gut microbiome as well as their brain development, according to a new study from the University of Pennsylvania.

Jul 1, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Placenta-on-a-chip
National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers and their colleagues have developed a "placenta-on-a-chip" to study the inner workings of the human placenta and its role in pregnancy.

Jun 30, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Educate mom, reduce unintended pregnancies
Educating young women about intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants — which are more effective than condoms or the pill — dramatically cut the number of unintended pregnancies among women seeking family planning.

Jun 29, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Picky eaters — a serious problem for some
Eating disorders experts weigh in on Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder — two years after classification as a mental health condition.

Jun 26, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

New Noninvasive and effective Prenatal Testing
Non Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis (NIPD) is a new genetic test to screen for birth defects and inherited disease. Now available only to women with high-risk pregnancies, many experts feel it should become a standard test. It is projected to become standard for use by the National Health Service in the United Kingdom sometime this year.

Jun 25, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Strong working memory can reduce teen sex?
A new study has found that individual differences in working memory can predict early sexual activity and unprotected sex in teenagers.

Jun 24, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Gene mutation triggers lymphoblastic leukemia
Recent research has "major implications" for understanding the genetic basis of several types of cancer, including leukemia.

Jun 23, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Sun's coronal gases may harm our health
Husband and wife scientists have observed an unusual phenomenon. They have revealed a "highly significant" match between solar storms and incidents of human disease: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and giant cell arteritis (GCA), both autoimmune disorders.

Jun 22, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Cat videos make you 'feel-good' and boost energy!
If you get a warm, fuzzy feeling after watching cute cat videos, the effect may be more profound than you think!

Jun 19, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Humans, we may have a built-in GPS in our nose
Like homing pigeons, humans have a nose for navigation. Our brains are wired to convert smells into spatial information to orient ourselves.

Jun 18, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Low glycemic index diet reduces autism symptoms
Salk researchers find diet recommended for diabetics softens the symptoms of autism in mice.

Jun 17, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Common pesticide linked to ADHD — in boys
A new study links a commonly used household pesticide to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and young teens — but strongest in boys.

Jun 16, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Artificial intelligence regenerates planaria
For the first time, artificial intelligence proves it can do more than just crunch numbers — and shows us the body plan planaria follow to regenerate.

Jun 15, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Egg or sperm? That is the question...
A genetic switch is discovered that determines the fate of germ cells in the ovary of a little fish called the Japanese rice fish or medaka. It turns out that female medaka can produce sperm OR eggs in their ovaries.

Jun 12, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Mutations can spontaneously occur in early embryos
Until now, de novo genetic mutations — gene alterations — found for the first time in one child, were believed to be mainly the result of mutations in a sperm or egg (germline) of one parent and passed on to that child.

Jun 11, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Progeria syndrome truly a disease of aging
In new research, scientists have shown that Progeria or Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), is a disease comparable to normal aging.

Jun 10, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Infant brains develop faster than we thought
Scientists discover that infant brain development occurs years earlier than previously thought.

Jun 9, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

The Secret to a Longer Life? Be Female
Human supercentenarians share at least one thing in common — over 95 percent are women. Scientists have long observed differences between the sexes when it comes to aging, but there is no clear explanation for why females live longer.

Jun 8, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Motherhood permanently alters your brain
Motherhood permanently alters the brain and its response to hormone therapy later in a woman's life.

Jun 5, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Genes can predict a woman's first birth
Researchers analyzed the genes of thousands of women in the UK and the Netherlands and found the genes accurately predicted in about 15 per cent of women, when they will have their first baby.

Jun 4, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Genetic mutation link to autism might be undone
Scientists at the University at Buffalo have identified the mechanisms behind a genetic mutation that produces certain autistic behaviors in mice, as well as therapeutic strategies to restore normal behaviors.

Jun 3, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Why and how to barcode thousands of cells
When it comes to the tissues in our bodies, which cells do what, is almost always misleading. Scientists know there isn't just one cell type in an organ or any tissue.

Jun 2, 201-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Clues to how human neurovascular unit forms
Crucial functions we depend on, but don't consciously think about — things like heart rate, blood flow, breathing and digestion — are regulated by our neurovascular unit (1) which is made up of blood vessels and smooth muscles. But how they work together to coordinate functions is not yet understood.

Jun 1, 2015
-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Mothers coo while fathers say cool
Research presented at the 169th Acoustical Society of America meeting in Pittsburgh suggests that by avoiding baby talk, men may actually act as a bridge between baby talk and language acquisition for their children.

May 29, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Supplement may prevent alcohol-related defects
CDP-choline, sold as a brain-boosting agent and under study for stroke and traumatic brain injury, may block skull and brain damage that can result from alcohol consumption early in pregnancy.

May 28, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Alcohol damage before mom knows of pregnancy
Exposure to alcohol in early pregnancy changes the way genes function and influences brain structure in mice — and looks like human fetal alsohol syndrome.

May 27, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Hydrogels boost stem cells to heal brains
Researchers have engineered 'hydrogels' to hold stem cells for transplant into damaged brain and eyes of mice. The transplanted cells helped reverse blindness and help mice recover from stroke.

May 26, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Mom's obesity compromises infant immune system
When exactly does the immune system of babies born to obese mothers get compromised? Very early, according to a new study from the University of California, Riverside.

May 25, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Risk of preterm delivery for women born preterm
Women who were born preterm have a higher risk of giving birth to preterm children, according to a study from researchers of the CHU Sainte-Justine and the University of Montreal.

May 22, 2015
-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Acetaminophen can lower testosterone in fetal boys
Use of acetaminophen — or paracetamol — by pregnant women reduces testosterone in unborn boys. These findings help explain links between acetaminophen use in pregnancy and testicular problems in boys.

May 21, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

DNA reveals impact of malnutrition on fetus
This is the first study to look at prenatal nutrition and its affect on the genome of the adult that infant grows into.

May 20, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Taking immortality out of cancer
Scientists have discovered a new strategy to fight cancer. They target telomeres — the structures at both ends of each chromosome. One group has found that blocking the TRF1 gene, essential to telomeres, creates dramatic improvements in mice with lung cancer.

May 19, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Genome editing could cure sickle cell anemia
Researchers have shown that changing just a single letter of the DNA of human red blood cells in the laboratory increases their production of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin - a world-first advance that could lead to a cure for sickle cell anaemia and other blood disorders.

May 18, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Brain cells are capable of switching "careers"
Scientists at the Salk Institute have found a single molecule controls the fate of mature sensory neurons. This discovery changes our view of neurons – which are responsible for specific tasks in the brain – as being much more flexible than anticipated.

May 15, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

C-section knocks out infant gut microbiome
A fecal sample analysis of 98 Swedish infants over the first year of life found a connection between the development of a child's gut microbiome and the way baby is delivered.

May 14, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Placenta protects baby with transporter proteins
An important function of the human placenta is to protect the fetus from toxic substances cirulating through maternal blood. Placental membrane-bound transporter proteins, known as multidrug resistance proteins, protect the fetus by recirculating unwanted materials back into the mother's blood away from the fetus.

May 13, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Shedding new light on reproductive disorders
A National Institutes of Health study has solved an ovarian cell mystery. Scientists have figured out the origin of one of the cell types that make up the ovary. They also discovered how ovarian cells share data when a developing follicle holds the next maturing egg.

May 12, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How our brain plugs in vision stabilization
A new study reveals how important neurons find their way from the retina to our inner brain.

May 11, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How to stop "jumping genes" in stem cells
Histone H3.3 helps keep the mouse genome stable by keeping retrotransposons from "jumping" out of place.

May 8, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Parent training reduces autism behavioral problems
Young children with autism spectrum disorder, who also have serious behavioral problems, show improvement when their parents are trained with strategies to manage tantrums, aggression, self-injury, and non-compliance.

May 7, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Replace 1 sugar drink a day - cut risk of diabetes
A new study indicates that for every 5% energy increase provided by sweet drinks, in tandem the risk of developing type 2 diabetes can increase by 18%. However, the study also estimates replacing your daily consumption of one sugary drink with either water or unsweetened tea or coffee — lowers your risk of developing diabetes by between 14% and 25%.

May 6, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Engineering new blood vessels is closer to reality
New research suggests that suppressing parts of the human innate immune system helps engineered vascular grafts become fully functional blood vessels.

May 5, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Cell mitochondria are key to stem cell development
Research has discovered mitochondria, the major energy source for most cells, play an important role in stem cell development too. This purpose is distinct from the tiny organelle's traditional job as a cell's main source of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) needed in cell metabolism.

May 4, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How come we are warm-blooded?

Our arteries and veins run parallel to one another in order to regulate our body temperature.

May 1, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Most People Carry Recessive Disease Mutations
Humans carry an average of one or two mutations per person that can cause severe genetic disorders or prenatal death.

Apr 30, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Link between physical forces and limb deformities
Engineers and a pediatric surgeon have joined forces to discover that physical forces like pressure and tension affect the development of limbs in embryos — research that could someday be used to help prevent birth defects.

Apr 29, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Genetics behind fetal overgrowth syndrome found
New research could lead to safer, more efficient assisted reproduction procedures.

Apr 28, 2015
-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Mitochondrial genes and disease inheritance
Mitochondrial diseases are maternally inherited gene disorders that cause many debilitating conditions without any cures. Now, Salk Institute reports a successful gene-editing technology to prevent passing mutated mitochondrial DNA from mothers to offspring in mice.


Apr 25, 2015-----
News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How young cells learn to communicate

Most developmental biologists have assumed that young cells, only recently born from stem cells and called "progenitors," are already competent at inter-communication with other cells - but they have a lot to learn.

Apr 24, 2015 -----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How oxytocin makes a mom
The oxytocin hormone teaches mom's brain to respond to her baby's needs. Future research could lead to using oxytocin as treatment for social anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and perhaps other brain behavioral issues as well.

Apr 23, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Stem cell based birth defect can repair facial bones
Researchers have pinpointed the primary cause of a rare skull disorder in infants, a discovery that could also help wounded soldiers, car-wreck victims and other patients recover from disfiguring facial injuries.

Apr 22, 2015----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How zinc deficiency affects embryo and adults
Zinc deficiency is associated with diseases such as autism, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and ovarian cancer — and can affect the bilateral symmetry in the developing embryo.

Apr 21, 2015----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Found — proteins critical for DNA repair
For the first time science has observed the structure and function of specific proteins critical in the repair of DNA. While providing some much needed answers, it also opens up exciting possibilities for bio-engineering the cell.

Apr 20, 2015----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Breast cancer and the fountain of youth
The Fountain of Youth has been discovered and it's not in Florida as Ponce de Leon claimed. Instead, it is in the mammary glands of genetically modified mice.

Apr 17, 2015----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Newborn brain is altered by mom's use of cocaine
MRI brain scans of 152 infants found disruptions of connections in the amygdala-prefrontal network. First study of its kind.

Apr 16, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Dad's sperm may hold clues to autism
In a small study of 68 children, Johns Hopkins researchers found on the sperm of the fathers, DNA tags that may have contributed to the condition of their children.

Apr 15, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How electrical charges move through DNA
Electrical charges not only move through wires, they also travel along lengths of DNA, the molecule of life. This property is known as charge transport.

Apr 14, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

When using our brain muddles solving a problem
Why do some people learn a new skill right away, while others only gradually improve? What is happening in their brains that creates this variation.

Apr 13, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Autism's early 'neighborhood'

Scientists have found that in children with autism, sensorimotor regions of the brain become overconnected at the expense of later-developing higher-order brain functions.

Apr 10, 2015
-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Food allergies can be transmitted through blood
In rare cases, children can develop anaphylactic allergies to previously tolerated foods after receiving blood products via transfusion.

Apr 9, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

A method for blocking pregnancy loss?
Maternal infection is consistently identified as contributing to pregnancy complications and premature birth. The same small immune molecules are also implicated in other pregnancy losses. Now, research finds mom's immune cells can be be stopped from attacking her fetus and save the pregnancy.

Apr 8, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Why we are becoming myopic

Short-sightedness (myopia) is reaching epidemic proportions. Some scientists think they have found a reason why.

Apr 7, 2015
-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How do lifeforms know how to be the right size?
Probing deeply into genetics and biology at the earliest moments of development, researchers found that the size and pattern of an embryo depends on the mother's investment in the egg before it leaves her ovary.

Apr 6, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

New clues on origin of Hirschsprung's disease
Rare disorder can spring from common mutations in nerve development.

Apr 3, 2015
-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Smoking increases diabetes in female baby as adult
Women whose parents smoked during their pregnancy had an increased risk for diabetes mellitus independent of risk factors such as their own birth weight or adult weight. This data adds to evidence that prenatal environmental chemical exposures can contribute to adult diabetes mellitus.

Apr 2, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

About Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is not as well known as muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis, but is also a life-threatening birth defect — and just as common.

Apr 1, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Some birth defects due to shattered chromosomes
When children inherit chromosomes from their parents, some minor genetic changes frequently occur with little consequence. The human genome can be very forgiving. Except with chromosomal shattering — chromothripsis— which can even be found in a healthy mom who gives birth to an affected child.

Mar 31, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Why we need to make neurons from stem cells
A research team at UC San Francisco has discovered an RNA molecule called Pnky (pronounced “Pinky” and inspired by the American cartoon series Pinky and the Brain) can increase the production of neurons made by neural stem cells.

Mar 30, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

A link between autism and higher intelligence
Genes linked with a greater risk of developing autism may also be associated with higher intelligence. Researchers found new evidence linking genes associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with higher intelligence.

Mar 27, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Solving the "obstetrical dilemma"
Women's wider hips do not mean we are less efficient runners. Although never studied or proved with research, a notion has existed that wide hips make women less efficient walkers as well — until this Harvard study.

Mar 26, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Inducing pluripotent stem cells to reprogram
Anyone in cell biology recognizes the genes Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, also known as "OSKM" or the "Yamanaka factor." Shinya Yamanaka isolated these factors and re-introduced them into ordinary adult skin cells which reprogrammed those cells back to an embryonic state. These first induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, won Yamanaka the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2012.

Mar 25, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Radical vaccine against herpes viruses
Researchers at Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Albert Einstein College of Medicine have created a powerful vaccine against herpes viruses.

Mar 24, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Leukemia cells changed into harmless immune cells
After a chance observation in the lab, researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine found found they could change dangerous leukemia cells into mature and harmless immune cells called macrophages.

Mar 23, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Infant leukemia results from one rearranged gene
Pediatric Cancer Genome Project reports that a highly aggressive form of leukemia in infants has surprisingly few mutations except for a chromosome rearrangment that affects one gene.

Mar 20, 2015
-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Mom's age at childbirth affects boy baby as adult
A mother's age at her child's birth may affect her male child's birth weight as well as his adult chance of becomming diabetic.

Mar 19, 2015
-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How dieting and fasting turn off inflammation
Researchers have found a compound produced, when dieting or fasting, that can block inflammation as seen in such disorders as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's.

Mar 18, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

A mutation that can cause male infertility
Brown University biologists have determined how the loss of a gene results in infertility in mice. Their work in the complex process of sperm generation may directly apply to a similar loss of fertility in men.

Mar 17, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How to build a gene location APP
There is a new "app" for finding and mapping specific gene locations on a gene or DNA sequence of a chromosome. Scientists from the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) are using one of the hottest tools in biomedical research to locate genes on chromosomes — CRISPR/Cas9.

Mar 16, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Bioelectricity key in brain development and repair
More than on/off switch, electric signals tell cells where and how to grow. Research conducted by Tufts University shows that bioelectrical signals control and instruct embryonic brain development.

Mar 13, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Low Omega-3 and Vitamin D affects brain serotonin
Although omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D have been seen to improve cognitive function and behavior in certain brain disorders; low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D will negatively affect brain development and function as well.

Mar 12, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

DNA-binding protein critical to normal embryo
Scientists have found that CTCF, a DNA-binding protein, is essential in the body plan of a developing embryo.

Mar 11, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Developing a sense of taste
Our sense of taste is actually a combination of smell, taste and texture. A single taste bud can have dozens of receptor cells sending signals of sour, sweet, salty and bitter through nerve pathways to our brain. Taste even plays a role in digestion, preparing the stomach for a meal. But more significantly, taste cells regenerate every 10 days.

Mar 10, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Mechanical stress is key in cell to cell fusion
The process of cell fusion was thought to be simple and straight forward, but turns out to be complicated. It is a two way street where one cell protrudes into another, while the invaded cell pushes back. Resistance is critical to the fusion process. Without it, the cell being invaded is simply pushed away ending fusion.

Mar 9, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

New hormone mimics the effects of exercise
A new human hormone, MOTS-c, has just been identified that protects against obesity and diabetes. The research was done in mice, but the chemistry exists in all mammals. MOTS-c was found in mitochondrial DNA while other hormones are produced in the DNA nucleus. It primarily targets muscle tissue, where it surprisingly restores insulin sensitivity.

Mar 6, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Detecting mutations in IVF embryos
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is used in fertility clinics to detect abnormalities before they are passed on by parents to their in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos. However, it was not possible to effectively scan an embryo's genome and detect spontaneous mutations.

Mar 5, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Master switch' error causes CHOPS syndrome
A puzzling multisystem disorder in three children, had genetic experts scrambling to identify what went wrong. Their research provides important information on key biological events occurring in human development and offers clues for treatment.

Mar 4, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Epigenome orchestrates embryo development
As the early embryo develops, cells transform into the tissues we need to make and regenerate life. Now, science is finding this process is largely controlled not by our genes, but by the epigenome, the environmental chemical markers that latch onto our DNA and initiate when genes are to be turned on or off.

Mar 3, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Tobacco smoke and preemies with lung disease
Public health experts know that tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) can be harmful to children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a lung disease that often accompanies premature birth. Findings now suggest high levels of second-hand and caregiver smoking greatly contribute to further decline in the health of these infants.

Mar 2, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Exercise ball decreases labor time and C-sections
Researchers, who are nurses, have found that a peanut-shaped exercise ball can be a highly effective tool to accelerate labor following an epidural.

Feb 27, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Why some older mothers' babies have birth defects
Researchers have found a possible clue to why older mothers face a higher risk for having babies born with conditions such as Down syndrome — it's in the numbers.

Feb 26, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Cerebral palsy – it can be in your genes
An international research group led by a team at the University of Adelaide has made what they believe could be the biggest discovery into cerebral palsy in 20 years.

Feb 25, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Baby formula poses arsenic threat to newborns
In the FIRST U.S. study of urinary arsenic in babies, Dartmouth College researchers found that formula-fed infants had higher arsenic levels than breast-fed infants, and that breast milk itself contained very low arsenic concentrations.

Feb 24, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

The neural basis for 'being in the mood'
Researchers discover that in female mice, neurons respond to social information depending on her hormonal state.

Feb 23, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Evolving a bigger brain with human DNA
A tiny but crucial difference between human and chimp DNA boosts a larger brain size in mice given the same human gene in-utero.

Feb 20, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Angelman Syndrome and our Circadian clocks
Monitoring a childs' biological clocks may be the quickest way to determine the effectiveness of experimental drugs currently under development to treat Angelman syndrome — a debilitating genetic disorder that occurs in more than one of every 15,000 live births.

Feb 19, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Reversing effects of obesity on female fertility
Scientists were able to increase the fertility of obese mice by reversing some of the obesity-induced changes made to their eggs. This suggests therapeutic approaches could be developed to help overweight women conceive.

Feb 18, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Parents who smoke risk diabetes in unborn child
Prenatal smoking and diabetes are linked. A child exposed in the womb to tobacco smoke from either smoking parent, is predisposed to developing diabetes as an adult.

Feb 17, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Baby’s own genes can trigger early birth
Some babies are genetically disposed to being born too soon, and variants in their DNA — not their mother's — may trigger early birth.

Feb 16, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Growing a brain in 3-D
Researchers have induced human embryonic stem cells to organize into a 3D structure similar to the human cerebellum.

Feb 13, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

New protein linked to gestational diabetes
For 40 years scientists have accepted there are four enzymes which kick-start the body's ability to get energy [calories] from food. But a protein just found, may be the actual predictor for whether expectant moms develop diabetes during pregnancy.

Feb 12, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Secrets of how our kidneys develop
Striking images reveal new insights into how the kidney develops from a group of cells into a complex organ.

Feb 11, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Babies understand complex social situations
By one year old, infants begin to make sense of complex social situations by observing the behaviors of those around them.

Feb 10, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Gene differences between male and female brains
New research shows DNA methylation plays a significant role in the complex process of fetal brain development.

Feb 9, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Stress in pregnancy can affect baby's weight
Stress hormones in mom can affect baby. Research has found that increased levels of glucocorticoid stress hormones in pregnant mice cause the moms to eat more but reduces baby weight.

Feb 6, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Turning back aging in cells
A new procedure quickly and efficiently increases the length of human telomeres. Telomeres are the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes which when eroded, lead to aging and disease.

Feb 5, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Insecticides with pyrethroids linked to ADHD
Rutgers University suggests pregnant women exposed to common pesticides may bear children suseptible to ADHD.

Feb 4, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

A gene vital to the central nervous system
Scientists have identified a gene that helps regulate how well nerves of the central nervous system are insulated, and healthy insulation is vital for increasing the conductivity in nerve signals.

Feb 3, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Sleep improves infant memory
There is no rest for a baby's brain - not even in sleep. While infants sleep they are reprocessing what they have learned.

Feb 2, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Personalized treatment for intellectual disability?
Scientists can protect animals against a type of genetic neural error causing intellectual disability, including serious memory impairment and altering anxiety levels.

Jan 30, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Things smell good for a reason...
Fruit flies can smell healthy antioxidants in fruit and eating these antioxidants protects the fruit fly's cells from "free radicals." Humans also use smell to detect "healthy" food. But we are just beginning to understand how — and why.

Jan 29, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Effects of thyroid disorders on reproductive health
Thyroid disease can significantly affect a woman's ability to have children. A new review of the disease promotes thyroid screening for all women wanting to begin their families.

Jan 28, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

BPA and estradiol affect sperm development
Washington State University researchers have found a direct link between the plastics component bisphenol A, or BPA, and disrupted sperm production. The chemical disrupts the delicate DNA interactions needed to create sperm which might explain declining sperm counts.

Jan 27, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Caesarean delivery may hamper sex life
Women who have a caesarean section, forceps or vacuum extraction are more likely to experience persisting pain during sex than women who have a vaginal birth, in the year following childbirth.

Jan 26, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Turning stem cells into bones, cartilage & stroma
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have discovered the stem cell in mice that gives rise to bone, cartilage, and a key part of bone marrow called the stroma.

Jan 23, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

New way to detect genetic errors in IVF embryos?
New research has identified karyomapping as a viable and cost-effective method of detecting a wide range of genetic diseases in IVF embryos.

Jan 22, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Blocking GnIH could eliminate stress infertility
University of California, Berkeley, scientists have discovered that chronic stress activates a hormone that reduces fertility long after stress has ended — blocking this hormone returns female reproductive behavior back to normal.

Jan 21, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Some men only commit when women are scarce
Sexual supply and demand affects mate choice among the Makushi people of Guyana, South America. When women are in short supply, men are more likely to seek long-term relationships.

Jan 20, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How the rotavirus causes infection in children
Researchers now understand how a virus kills up to half a million children each year. Rotaviruses are considered the most important cause of severe diarrhea in children.

Jan 19, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How to reverse obesity and diabetes?
Researchers at the University of Michigan have identified how a promising drug improves the metabolism of sugar by generating a new signal between fat cells and the liver.

Jan 16, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

More sun means fewer children and grandchildren
Solar activity affects human fertility across generations according to historical records covering the years 1750 to 1900 and recorded in a church in Norway.

Jan 15, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Quitting smoking? Women — time quitting to your cycle!
Neuroscience reveals that women crave cigarettes more during their menstrual periods. Coordinating quiting smoking with the timing of your period might help.

Jan 14, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Circadian rhythms regulate skin stem cells?
The body clock in mice protects cells from oxygen damage during cell division — which may be true in humans as well.

Jan 13, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

When DNA gets sent to "time-out"
For a skin cell to do its job, it must turn on a completely different set of genes than would a liver cell — and then keep genes it doesn't need switched off. One way of turning off large groups of genes all at once is to send them to "time-out" at the edge of the nucleus, where they are kept quiet.

Jan 12, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

How a crucial protein aids learning and memory
Johns Hopkins researchers have studied the movement of the protein SynGap within brain cells and found that when SynGAP is released from dendrites, they grow larger which strengthens synapses and memory.

Jan 9, 2015------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Exposure to cold 'switches' white fat to brown fat
New research has uncovered a part of our metabolism with great flexibility. Thirty percent of cells that appear to be white fat rapidly turned into brown fat cells after being mildly stressed with cold temperature.

Jan 8, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

'Biological clock' may be able to kill cancer cells
Cell biologists have targeted telomeres in mice with a small molecule called 6-thiodG. This molecule can take advantage of a cell's 'biological clock' and kill cancer cells — and shrink tumors.

Jan 7, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Molecular network identified underlying ASD
Researchers in the United States have identified a molecular network of many of the genes previously shown to contribute to autism spectrum disorders. This finding provides a map of some of the crucial protein interactions contributing to autism and will help uncover new gene candidates for the disease.

Jan 6, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Enzyme SPPL3 helps activate our immune system
Already known to cut proteins, the enzyme SPPL3 turns out to have additional properties. In a newly discovered role SPPL3 activates T cells — the immune system's foot soldiers.

Jan 5, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Egg and sperm cells made from human stem cells
Scientists at the University of Cambridge working with the Weizmann Institute have created primordial germ cells - cells that will become egg and sperm — using human embryonic stem cells. Although this conversion had previously been done with rodent stem cells, this the first time it has been achieved efficiently using human stem cells.

Jan 2, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

High-fat diet in pregnancy harms stem cells in fetus
The findings may provide a broad context for the rise in immune diseases and allergies in children.

Jan 1, 2015-----News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Genetic mutation cause of ovarian failure
Tel Aviv University researchers discover unique genetic disorder responsible for ovarian insufficiency in women under 40.

 

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